From 1967-68 he served in Marine artillery units in Quang Tri Province. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. [5] Between 1970 and 1971 alone, there were 363 cases of "assault with explosive devices" against officers in Vietnam.[6]. Colin Powell, who served as a major in Vietnam, recalled that during his second tour from 1968 to 1969, “I moved my cot every night, partly to thwart Viet Cong informants who might be tracking me, but also because I did not rule out attacks on authority from within the battalion itself.”. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. The M26 Grenade that was often used for fragging during the Vietnam War. and junior enlisted personnel. A bit later, when Sergeant Richard L. Tate, the sergeant of the guard, discovered Hendricks sleeping on post, he gave the private a tongue lashing, but took no further action. Hendricks was charged with murder. Joe Mack, builder of gasoline-powered delivery wagons which eventually evolved into the Mack Truck Company. Encyclopedia.com. After Hamburger Hill, an Army major was quoted as saying another hard-fought, high-casualty infantry assault like Hamburger Hill, “is definitely out.”, Not Wanting to be the Last Soldier to Die in a War That Would Not be Won. or a senior non-commissioned officer perceived as unpopular, harsh, inept or overzealous. The United State officially ended its involvement in Vietnam in 1973, along with its military draft. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Most had enlisted in the service and supported the war. They were soon informed by the battalion commander that the source of the commotion was a hand grenade that had been tossed through an open window into officers’ sleeping quarters. Almost 90 percent of these men were intoxicated on a wide assortment of substances at the time of the fragging, which mostly occurred at night. LOCATION: Vietnam (October 17, 2020). During the Vietnam War, the U.S. Army implemented a one-year rotation policy for soldiers and a six-month rotation for officers, meaning the men were unable to form the bonds that so often meant the difference between life and death in combat, as well as to cement the units with a sense of purpose and unity. After learning about fragging during the Vietnam War, take a look at some photos from the Vietnam War that were only recently declassified. An example would be to order a soldier to perform a particularly hazardous task, and continue to repeat the order until the soldier met his demise. You can change your choices at any time by visiting Your Privacy Controls. was incompetent, fragging the officer was considered a means of self-defense for the men serving under him. General Vo Nguyen Giap was the leader of the North Vietna…, Fraenkel-Teomim, Baruch ben Joshua Ezekiel Feiwel, Fragments of Isabella: A Memoir of Auschwitz, Fragments: Memories of a Wartime Childhood (Bruchstücke: Aus Einer Kindheit 1939-1948), https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fragging, Coming Home: Vietnam Veterans in American Society, Vietnam Becomes an American War (1965–67). Fragging of this sort also occurred in Vietnam. Alberto Martinez killed two officers by setting off grenades and a Claymore mine in their room at one of Saddam Hussein’s former palaces in Iraq. The term “fragging” was coined during the Vietnam War. His death sentence was reduced to life in prison. Guenter Lewy , American in Vietnam, 1978. The word comes from the nickname for hand grenades, a weapon popular with enlisted men because the evidence is destroyed with the consummation of the crime. In 2005 Staff Sgt. “He was not a victim of combat. Given the greater availability of firearms, the total number of assaults on commanders by enlisted men likely reached into the thousands, according to David Cortright in his 1975 book Soldiers in Revolt. A broader definition encompasses murder by a variety of other means, including mines, shooting, and hit and run with a vehicle. Gina Dimuro is a New York-based writer and translator. The ensuing trial was fraught with allegations that a racist system had railroaded Smith, a black man who had made antiwar statements before the incident. Of 850 inmates in the USDB population at the time, 28 were identified whose actions, based on their courts-martial transcripts, matched the fragging incident profile. Lt. Thomas Dellwo was killed by a fellow soldier the day before he was slated to leave Vietnam. For every actual fragging incident, there was an untold number of threats of fragging. They admitted to little planning beyond talking to others, and most did nothing to avoid capture. Over the course of the entire Vietnam War, there were 800 documented fragging attempts in the Army and Marine Corps. Marine Colonel Robert D. Heinl Jr., in his seminal article “The Collapse of the Armed Forces” published in the June 1971 Armed Forces Journal, claimed the morale, discipline and battle worthiness of the U.S. Armed Forces in Vietnam were probably worse during this period than at any time in the 20th century—possibly in the history of the United States. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, The Oxford Companion to American Military History. North Vietnamese military leader Assigned to guard duty that night, Private Gary A. Hendricks settled into his position on the perimeter and made himself comfortable. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The end of the war also marked the end of the fragging epidemic, something which some historians speculate is not unrelated to the end of the draft. W. D. Henderson , Cohesion: The Human Element in Combat, 1985. Mansfield asked what failure of order and discipline within the armed forces produced an atmosphere that resulted in 209 cases of fragging in 1970. On the night of March 15, 1971, a group of American artillery officers stationed at the Bien Hoa Air Force base were enjoying a rare “wonderful time of great food and fellowship” in a brief respite from the war. Originating among United States troops during the Vietnam War, the term was most commonly used to mean the assassination of an unpopular officer of one's own fighting unit. Then, check out some other fascinating photos from the 1960s. [2] Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Soldiers Assaulted Their Officers in Vietnam (Texas Tech University, 356 pp., $34.95) Army veteran and author George Lepre does a very thorough job trying to answer the subtitle’s question in this, the first detailed study of the fragging phenomenon. forces, now knowing they are on the way out but not knowing just when, have developed an enclave mentality and a philosophy of ‘Why take the risks in a war that’s winding down?’ Recent reports from Vietnam talk of demoralization and of draftees ‘fragging’ gung-ho officers; that is tossing hand grenades at them to put a stop to aggressiveness.”. This combined with stricter screening processes to rule out drug addicts and greater attention to soldiers’ psychological stress has miraculously reduced the number of fragging incidents.