(*These are terrible names for them, since they are both often used for past, present and future situations.) These clauses are used to avoid making sentences overly complicated. Note that when used as a noun, -ing verbs are called gerunds. Utilizamos cookies en esta página para mejorar la experiencia de navegación. Without the comma we might think that that 'flanked by...' is used as a reduced relative clause to describe the noun phrase immediately before it, which is 'hillside'. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland). Here is it mean result? Participle clauses are an advanced grammatical point, especially useful for C1 and C2 students. There are three types of participle clauses: 1. Whistling cheerfully, she left the compartment. The tense is indicated by the verb in the main clause. x��\[��c{m9f�6�'΅sθ��(Q��оA��� "���R�=�]}���^���F�ӷꯪ���>?��Dَ���÷ߟ��J��ߙ������Oߝ�xf&�������w����n������d�R:�Kw���j�B����g_��;�d51t���(&���p�������v��R��н#����ZM�w|�RI�a�@����gDJ���zQB Having got dressed, he slowly went downstairs.Having finished their training, they will be fully qualified doctors.Having been made redundant, she started looking for a new job. generally if there is a bomb explosion and a building collapsing, probably the bomb caused the collapse) or the context (i.e. There isn’t really a difference. The tense is indicated by the verb in the main clause. (Standing in the queue, I realised I didn't have any money.). I think the comma here helps to make the sentence less ambiguous. I do not get the difference between participle clauses and participle phrases. 3.Starting in the new year, the new policy bans cars in the city centre. <> Note that past participles normally have a passive meaning. 2.Narrow stone steps run up the hill-side,which were flanked by closely clustered houses. Looked after carefully, these boots will last for many years. Hi, thanks for your comment. Putting participle in the last part of sentece,what it will mean? Thanks again! Here’s a clear explanation. Here why its not mean the action happen same time instead add information about subject like the sentence Though in some cases, the meaning isn't really clear, in which case it's generally better not to use a participle clause. Profesor de inglés. Having lived through difficult times together, they were very close friends. Having read the book before, he knew how the film would end. if it does advervial function,then why comma is put before flanked They are formed using present participles (going, reading, seeing, walking, etc. Esmail Emon replied on 15 November, 2020 - 11:17 Bangladesh. (The man who was driving the car was not injured. I walked down the street flanked by my friend. 1: A present participle (verb + ing) can be used in the same way as an active relative clause: Participle clauses do not have a specific tense. I think I would be more inclined, however, to say that the participle clause here has an adverbial function. This gives more information about the noun. I knew how to move around the city, having lived there all my life. My main question is the participle flanked modify what? ), The man driving the car was not injured. 4.if reverse this( Thanks. ( Download this page in PDF here.) This use of prepositions or conjunctions before participle clauses (mainly –ing participle clauses) is quite common: Remember to take your bags when leaving the bus. The sentence can be seen as similar to these: I walked down the street accompanied by my friend. Shocked by the explosion, the people ran for shelter. Reduced Relative Clauses. ), A bomb exploded, killing three people. Example: Getting into the lift, I realised I had forgotten my keys. Past Participle Clauses replacing Relative Clauses, Aprende cómo se procesan los datos de tus comentarios. In other words, without the comma the listener/reader might think that it is the hillside which is flanked by..., and in this case it would be a defining relative clause distinguishing which hillside is being referred to: the hillside flanked by... as opposed to another hillside. Este sitio usa Akismet para reducir el spam. Verbs which end in –ed are sometimes referred to as the past participle*. Kirk replied on 16 November, 2020 - 07:44 Spain. ), If you receive an e-mail containing a virus, delete it immediately. x����m�` l2 �"X�l��v"B9�Q�l����g��;�n�OE#����``~{8҉1�=̀1=p�`��Fsxrиp��Bq����,���8���! �3�3����o���S�h�ГJ'M9���&Fj��ow~,M�Us�. We can use participle clauses after a noun in the same way as relative clauses. Look at these examples to see how participle clauses are used. 1.Destroying the building,the bobm exploded ), Having been nominated many times, Leo DiCaprio is her all-time favourite actor. "Worried by the news, she called the hospital." Note that present participles have a similar meaning to active verbs. By know I understand most of the rules we have to use and also why we have to use them. If you want to download this clear explanation of participle clauses in PDF, simply choose how to do it: join my newsletter or contribute with 1,50€ so that this website keeps being free and without intrusive ads. ), Having nothing left to do, Julie went home. Knowing what he was like, I was careful to be polite. Aprende cómo se procesan los datos de tus comentarios. 2.he was in the kitchen.he was making coffee=he was in the kitchen making coffe? It is also common for participle clauses, especially with -ing, to follow conjunctions and prepositions such as before, after, instead of, on, since, when, while and in spite of. ICP#: 10044692, LearnEnglish Subscription: self-access courses, English Online: 100% online teacher-led course, EnglishScore Tutors: personal online English tutors, To talk about an action that happened at the same time as another action, To add information about the subject of the main clause. 2. LearnEnglish Subscription: self-access courses for professionals. stream 4. (She left the room as she was singing happily.). Peter M. replied on 7 November, 2020 - 08:01 Poland, Yes, that's fine. So pay attention, because this post is going to be a little complicated, but really, really useful for those of you seeking grammar at C1 or C2 levels.