The time/temperature relationship at roasting is proposed as the most important factor in the prevention of rancidity in roasted nuts (Leverington, 1962). Moisture content at the time of roasting is also important in determining the final colour. (a) Increase in porosity of hazelnuts as influenced by roasting temperature (Perren, 1995). at roasting for maximum sensory and chemical quality. So meat is juiciest at about medium rare while the juice is coming out. Roasting of macadamia commenced in Hawaii (Moltzau and Ripperton, 1939). However, an advantage of oil roasting is that a more even colour of product is obtained (Grimwood, 1971). Difficulties such as this suggest the desirability of segregating cultivars for roasting, and having defined standards for each cultivar. Atungulu, in Case Studies in Novel Food Processing Technologies, 2010. Roasting requires a higher temperature than baking in order to generate a flavorful crust on the surface of the food, and the roasting process sometimes covers the surface of the fan with fat (butter or oil), which is not required in the baking process, in order to reduce the loss of moisture. The aim is to highlight the flavor of the meat itself rather than a sauce or stew, as it is done in braising or other moist-heat methods. The roasting process at 120–140 °C is needed for the development of the typical flavor of cocoa. Hot air roasting at 140 and 150 °C resulted in 4.62- and 5.39-log bacterial reductions, which required 18 and 13 min of roasting, respectively, and is much longer than the IR or SIRHA roasting. In grilling, food is placed on a grill rack over an open flame (indirect heating), and this is one of the traditional food cooking techniques. The type of roasting technique may also influence microbiological aspects. This can be counteracted to some extent by treating roasted kernels with antioxidants (Cavaletto and Yamamoto, 1971). Some vegetables, such as potatoes, carrots, eggplants/aubergines, zucchini/courgette, pumpkin, turnips, rutabagas/swedes, parsnips, cauliflower, asparagus, squash, peppers, yam and plantain lend themselves to roasting as well. The combination method uses high heat just at either the beginning or the end of the cooking process, with most of the cooking at a low temperature. However, longer roasting time increased fat and water loss in the IR-roasting process. Since closed ovens employed in roasting processes have air inside the oven, a combination of IR heat treatment with the hot air is a worthy topic to study. Any piece of meat, especially red meat, that has been cooked in this fashion is called a roast. SIRHA roasting also met the pasteurization requirements for medium- or higher-degree roasted almonds (Yang et al., 2010). In the past, this method was often associated with the upper class and special occasions, rather than customary mealtimes, because it required freshly killed meat and close attention during cooking. Using modern technology, cocoas can be roasted at different particle sizes, such as whole beans, or as liquid cocoa mass, which is produced by a fine grinding of cocoa and liquefying within its own fat. K.P. Gas, steam pipes, or hot air can be used for direct heating. SIRHA roasting is a superior roasting method for producing pasteurized roasted almonds with the potential to reduce costs due to reduced roasting time compared to current hot air roasting. The curst works as a barrier to reduce fat and water loss in the second stage of hot air cooking. Recently, IR grilling has received attention. Macadamia processors in Australia tend to use low temperatures when roasting to minimize the risk of dark kernels, considered to be partly due to kernels of mixed cultivars. In Britain, Ireland, and Australia, a roast of meat may be referred to as a joint, or a leg, if it is a leg. When this happens, the binding sites for water in the centre of the kernels are not reduced effectively by roasting (Martinez- Navarrete and Chiralt, 1996). While the baking process causes the food (such as cake and muffins) to expand and fill the empty space, baked foods do not result in change of their structure. [4], Red meats such as beef, lamb, and venison, and certain game birds are often roasted to be "pink" or "rare", meaning that the center of the roast is still red. In recent times, plastic oven bags have become popular for roasts.